Calais, Maine

Gazetteer of the State of Maine
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ALEXANDER is situated nearly midway of the eastern part of Washington County. Baileyville and Baring bound it on the east, Crawford on the west, Princeton on the north, and Cooper and Meddybemps on the south. The surface is uneven but there is a variety of good farming land. Agriculture is the almost exclusive dependence of the inhabitants. The principal crop for export is hay. The nearest seaport is Calais 14 miles eastward; Machias 30 miles distant is the nearest on the south. The nearest railroad station is at Baring 10 miles distant. The Wapskanegan is the principal stream running north east from the west and centre of the town. The sheets of water are Lake Beautiful in the western part of the town, Burrows at the south western corner, Shining Lake lying on the northern, and Meddybemps Lake on the eastern border. Lake Beautiful has an area of about 500 acres and furnishes power for a saw and shingle mill about half the year. Alexander was first settled about 1810. Among the first who made the place their home were Solomon Perkins, Caleb Pike, George Hill, A. Bohanan, William D. Crockett, Paul Morse, Cyrus Young, and Samuel Cottel. The early settlers were mostly from Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The titles to their lands were obtained from Colonel John Black agent for the Binghams. The town was incorporated in 1835 and may have received its name in honor of Alexander Baring, a son in law of William Bingham. He was about this time made Lord Ashburton and it was he who, as British Ambassador, settled together with the American Secretary of State Daniel Webster our north eastern boundary In this town are two small villages, Lanesbrook and Alexander. There is a church edifice of the Methodists only at present. Alexander has five public school houses which with other school property are valued at $1,500. The valuation of the town in 1870 was $73,997. In 1880 it was $71,085. The population in 1870 was 456. In 1880 it was 439.

BARING is situated in the eastern part of Washington County. On its northern side it adjoins New Brunswick from which it is separated by the St Croix river. Calais bounds it on the east, Charlotte on the south, and Meddybemps town and lake on the west. The town is about 6 miles in length north and south and about 4 in width. The surface is without high hills, Bunker Hill being the greatest elevation. A gray granite rock forms the ledges which crop out. The soil is clayey. Hay and potatoes are the principal crop. The forest trees are beech, birch, maple, pine, spruce,hemlock, and hackmatac principally. A few elms have been set along the public ways by considerate and public spirited individuals. The Moosehorn Branch running south to Pemaquan Lake is the principal stream. A sheet of water called Little Lake lies in the western part of the town. The centre of business is on the St Croix where a dam furnishes a power carrying several saw mills and other machinery. The manufactures of the town are chiefly of lumber in its various forms. The St Croix and Penobscot railroad passes through the town and crosses the river into New Brunswick at this point. Baring was incorporated in 1825. The name was probably adopted in honor of the Baring family of London, a member of which married a daughter of William Bingham of Philadelphia who owned immense tracts of land in this and other parts of Maine. The husband of this daughter became Lord Ashburton who with the American Secretary of State Daniel Webster in 1842 settled our eastern and northern boundary. There are Baptist and Advent societies in the town and the former has a church and vestry. The Masonic body here have erected a monument of Italian marble to those of their members who fell in the Union cause in the Rebellion. Baring has two schoolhouses. The total school property is valued at $500. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $96,169. In 1880 it was $76,316. The rate of taxation in the latter year was 21 mills on the dollar. The population in 1870 was 364. In 1880 it was 303.

CALAIS is situated at the eastern extremity of Washington County at the head of the tide on the St Croix River. It is bounded by Baring on the west, Robbinston on the south and on the east and north by St Andrews and St Stephens in New Brunswick. The St Croix River forms the dividing line between Calais and the two latter places. The area of the town is 19,392 acres. The sheets of water are West Magurrewock Lake in the south west and East Magurrewock stretching from the centre of the town southward and about these Beaver, Vose, and Round Lakes. Granite and slate are the prevailing rocks. The territory was formerly covered with dense forests of pine timber. When Napoleon excluded the British from the Baltic, they resorted to Calais for the supplies of timber necessary to their ship yard. From that day to the present the place has been noted for its lumber business. Within city limits are eight valuable water powers of which five are improved. These improvements consisted in 1860 of saw mills having a total of twenty-one gangs of saws capable of cutting annually 55,000,000 feet of long lumber, nineteen lath machines cutting 49,000,000 laths, shingle machines capable of cutting 2,500,000 shingles. There are also two planing mills, one run by steam power, one planing machine factory, one saw factory, two axe factories, and four grain mills. The aggregate annual production of the last is 70,000 bushels of grain converted into meal and flour and of the axe factory 600 dozen axes. The value of the annual production of Calais mills is about $2,000,000. There remains a large surplus of power unused and a cotton mill and other industries are projected. Other manufactures are bricks, bedsteads, brooms, carriages, plaster, ships, etc. There are two marine railways and one dry dock. Being a port on waters navigable by large vessels and having a harbor open nine months in the year, the facility of transportation enables the products to be placed in sea coast markets at a lower cost than those of almost any other lumber making place. At Red Beach are immense deposits of variegated granite which are extensively wrought and about which quite a village has sprung up. In 1872 besides laths clapboard and shingle mills there were in operation at Calais and Baring thirty-eight mills mostly owned by residents of Calais. Calais is connected with the towns up river as far as Princeton by the St Croix and Penobscot Railway which will probably in a few years be extended to a connection with the European and North American. A connection of Calais with the latter road is already made by means of the St Andrews branch which here crosses the river by a bridge. There are also three highway bridges connecting Calais with St Andrew and St Stephens. Surrounding towns including Eastport 30 miles south are reached bv stages and various sea ports east and west by the Frontier and International steamboat lines. The Post Oftices are Calais, Milltown at the northern, and Red Beach at the southern border. The telegraphic connection is also good. Calais is a small but pleasing city. There are many tasteful and handsome residences. Several of the streets have shade trees of recent and others ancient of growth and some have charming vistas. There is an odor of pine lumber about the city with just enough of the provincial character accompanying to give a fresh and attractive flavor to the place. The first permanent white settler of Calais was Daniel Hill from Jonesboro Me who made a clearing on Ferry Point. He was an athletic and fearless man and had served in the Indian war of 1758-60. The Indians about him knew this fact and greatly feared him though he kindly aided and instructed them in their farming. Samuel Hill came in 1781. In 1782 Daniel Hill, Jacob Libby, and Jeremiah Frost built the first saw mill, the location being near the mouth of Porter's Stream. There were so few men that the women assisted in raising the frame. Daniel Hill brought in the first oxen and did the first farming. By order of the General Court of Massachusetts the territory along the southern part of St Croix was in 1789 divided into townships. In June of the same year the township which is now Calais was sold to Waterman Thomas of Waldobrough Me for the sum of 672. About six years later Mr Thomas sold half the township to Shubael Downes of Walpole Mass, one quarter to Edward H Robbing of Milton Mass, and one quarter to Abiel Woods. Subsequently Edmund Monroe bought a large portion of the lands of Downes and Woods. A few years later Samuel Jones re surveyed the township and divided it into settlers lots of 50 to 100 acres each and Jones's lines still remain the boundary and farm lines In 1801. Jairus Keen from Duxbury Mass built at Calais the first vessel launched on this river naming it Liberty. In 1803 a saw mill was erected at Milltown by Abner Hill and others, the machinery working so effectively that this became known as the Brisk Mill. Stephen Brewer Esq of Boston, who became a resident of Calais in 1804 or 1805, was the first to export sawed lumber from Calais. He was educated of good property and soon became influential. He presided at the first town meeting, was the first justice of the peace, and first post master. He introduced the first wagon and aided liberally in fitting and furnishing the first church. His widow in 1815 received a chaise from the Boston friends of her late husband and this was the first carriage of the kind seen in Calais. Shubael Downes Jr, a proprietor, constructed the first grist mill and kept the first hotel. The first bridge across the St Croix was at Milltown, built in 1825. The bridge between Calais and St Stephen was erected in 1826. In 1849-50 a railroad was built connecting Calais with Baring and a few years later it was extended up the St Croix to Princeton. Calais was originally township No 5. It was incorporated as a town in 1809 and was granted a city charter in 1850. In a later period Frederick A., James S., and Charles E Pike, sons of William Pike an early settler, became distinguished in finance authorship and politics. Frederick represented his native district in Congress eight years and James S was several years on the editorial staff of the New York Tribune. Another resident of Calais the wife, of Hon F. A. Pike before mentioned is the author of the novels Ida May, Caste, and Agnes, and Harriett Prescott Spofford of Newburyport Mass the popular magazinist was a native of this place. Calais was incorporated as a town in 1809 and as a city in 1850, Hon George Downes being chosen as the first mayor. Calais Savings Bank at the beginning of the present decade held in deposits and profits the sum of $172,651.47. The Calais National Bank has a capital of $100,000. The Calais Advertiser issued every Wednesday by John Jackson Esq is a sterling newspaper. It is republican in politics. The Times is a newsy sheet published every Friday by Messrs Whidden & Rose. It is an organ of the greenback party. The first minister who preached in Calais was Rev Duncan McCall in 1790. The Congregational society was organized in 1825 and the first church edifice was built in the year following. Revs Mark Trafton and Jeremiah Eaton were among the first itinerant preachers in these parts. There are now several handsome houses of worship in Calais and the usual religious societies to be found in a place of this size. The city has seventeen public schoolhouses and the school property reaches a valuation of $50,000. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $1,523,452. In 1880 it was $1,732,056. The population in 1870 was 5,944 In 1880 it was 6,172.


CHARLOTTE is situated in the eastern part of Washington County 35 miles north east of Machias and 13 south of Calais. It is on the stage road from Calais to Bangor. Robbinston lies on the east, Pembroke and Deunysville on the south, Baring and Meddybemps on the north, and Cooper on the west. The surface of the town is undulating and the soil is quite productive. Round Lake lies near the center of the town and in the south eastern part is Pemaquan Lake, 225 square miles in area, both reservoirs of the Pemaquan River. The Moosehorn Stream comes down through the north of the town to the latter lake. The principal manufactures are lumber and cooperage. The post offices are Charlotte and South Charlotte. The first settlement in this town was about 1807- 10 by Bridges, Damon,Truesdell, and Fisher. It was incorporated Jan 19, I825. There are Baptist and Methodist societies in town. Charlotte has five public schoolhouses. The total school property is estimated at $1675. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $66,938. In 1880 it was $60,293. The population in 1870 was 467. In 1880 it was 489.

COOPER situated somewhat east of the middle of Washington County 24 miles north of Machias and about 20 from Calais. Meddybemps lies on the east, Alexander on the north, Crawford on the northwest, other sides being occupied by unnamed townships. The surface is swelling rather than hilly. In the western part is an elevation called Western Ridge which was one of the stations of the United States Coast Survey. The principal streams are Dead Branch, a tributary of Denny's River, and Meadow Brook which empties into Cathance Lake on the southern border of the town. The manufactures are small and for export consist wholly of lumber. There are two or three swells of land which would make good farms and are partially devoted to that purpose. Much of the forest however still remains. The village is the terminus of the stage line from Charlotte. Cooper was formerly No 15 and included that part of Meddvbemps which is west of Denny's River. The settlement commenced about 1812, and 1822 it was incorporated. Its name was adopted in honor of Gen John Cooper, an early and esteemed settler. The town has a Methodist and a Congregational church. It has five public school houses, these with other school property being valued at $1,500.

CRAWFORD is situated a little east of the centre of Washing ton County. It is 24 miles north of Machias on the stage line to Calais. The town of Alexander lies on the east, Cooper on the south east, and Wesley on the south west. Some parts of the town are very uneven. Harmon Mountain is the greatest elevation. Pokey or Crawford Lake lies on the northern border and extends to the centre of the town. It is 5 miles in length and 2 in width and is the source of East Machias River. Other sheets of water are Barrow's Lake, forming a part of the eastern line of the town, and Love Lake lying on the south eastern line. The water powers are three on East Machias River, one on Barrow's Lake Stream and one on Seavey Brook. Beech and hemlock constitute the larger part of the forests. The soil is a good clay loam. The chief crops are hay and potatoes. Crawford was incorporated in 1828 previous to which time it was known under the name of Adams. There are Baptist and Methodist societies in the town and the first have a church edifice. The town has two public schoolhouses. The entire school property is valued at $1,500. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $30,351. In 1880 it was $29,584. The rate of taxation in the latter year was 25 mills on the dollar. The population in 1870 was 209. In 1880 it was 206.

DENNYSVILLE lies in the south eastern part of Washington County about 17 miles west of Eastport. It is bounded on the north by Charlotte, on the east by Pembroke, and south and west by Edmunds, and an unnamed township. Denny's River forms the boundary line on the west. Wilson's stream runs southward through the eastern part of the town. The principal power is a tide power on Denny's River at the village in the southern part of the town. Here are mills for manufacturing long lumber and staves and a grist mill. The principal other business is ship building. The town is the terminus of the stage line to Calais. The surface of the town is broken and hilly. The most prevalent rock is locally known as iron stone. The soil is divided between loam clay and gravel. Potatoes, hay, and grain are the crops chiefly cultivated. Spruce, pine, and hemlock form the hulk of the forests. The most notable eminences are Page's Hill and King David's ledge. The original settlers of Dennysville arrived in the river on the 17th of May 1786 in the sloop Sally. They were from the vicinity of Hingham Mass. In this company were Nathan Preston, William Kilby, and Samuel Sprague who remained and formed the nucleus of the present town. The first chuch organization was Congregational and was formed by Rev Jothain Sewell on October 27 1805. This denomination now has the only church in the town. The first Sunday school was organized May 31 1829. Deacon William Kilby was superintendent, Benjamin R Jones secretary and librarian, and John Kilby treasurer. The teachers were Benjamin Foster, John Kilby, Solomon Foster, Isaac Eastman, John Mayhew, Eben Mayhew, Sally Lincoln, Caroline L Jones, Amelia H Jones, Mary Wilder, Lydia Kilby, Hannah Wilder, and Eliza Eastman. The proprietors of this township which for many years included also that of Pembroke and Perry were Thomas Russell, General Benjamin Lincoln, and John Lowell of Massachusetts who purchased it from the commonwealth, and the present titles came from them. The town was incorporated in 1818 taking its name from the river that formed its western boundary, Denny's River, and the river had its name from an Indian of that name who at the period of settlement made it his principal hunting ground. Dennysville has two public schoolhouses valued with other school property at $4,000. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $199,319. In 1880 it was $184,786. The rate of taxation in the latter year was 18 mills on the dollar. The population in 1870 was 488. In 1880 it was 522.

EDMUNDS lies near the south eastern extremity of Washington County on the western side of Cobscook Bay. Dennysville and Pembroke bound it on the north, Marion on the West, and Whiting and Trescott on the south. The area is 17,696 acres. The surface of the town is moderately uneven. Denny's River forms the boundary line on the north east side of the town and Cathance River flows east across the northern part. The latter has three considerable falls known respectively as the Mill Seat, The Flume embracing three pitches, and Great Works. The last has mills. Cathance Lake situated about ten miles north, west is the reservoir for this stream and has an area of six or seven square miles. Bull's Meadow Brook, Burnt Cove Stream, Little Falls Stream each has one or more powers but without much improvement. Those on the last are the Rock, the Falls, and a tide power near the mouth of the river. There is at present only one considerable mill in the town. Cattle raising and sea faring constitute the chief occupation of the people. The north eastern part of the town is most numerously settled. The nearest post office is Dennysville. The town was formerly Number 10 and was purchased of Massachusetts in 1786 by Col. Aaron Hobart of Abington Mass for $2,200. Rufas Putnam of Boston was the chief surveyor. James Neil, an Irishman who deserted from the British army, was the first settler building his log house in 1775. He had shot two of his pursuers but in 1793 he removed into the British Dominion of New Brunswick. Nathaniel Hobart a son of the proprietor came and built a mill in 1787 but after following the lumber business ten years he sold it to Phineas Bruce an eminent Machias lawyer. Many had settled in the town for a few years then moved to other places. In 1792 Isaac Hobart, another son of the first proprietor, built a house and mill .On the death of his father he purchased the wild lands belonging to the heirs and became owner of three fourths of the township. His three sons Aaron, Isaac, and Benjamin succeeded to his lands. Samuel Runnels and family came in 1796. He had been a soldier of the Revolution. The Methodists have a church in this town and usually sustain a minister. Edmunds has four public schoolhouses which with other school property are valued at $1,000. The value of the estates in 1870 was $86,418. In 1880 it was $72,331. The population in 1870 was 448. In 1880 it was 445.

MEDDYBEMPS lies in the eastern part of Washington County 10 miles south west of Calais and 35 miles NNE of Machias. It is bounded by Alexander and Baring on the north, on the east by the latter, south by Charlotte, and Cooper and west by the latter. About one third of Meddybemps Lake lies in the town extending to the centre. The area of this sheet of water is 15 square miles. It has its outlet at this point constituting Denny's River. On this stream and about the southern extremity of the lake Meddybemps Village is situated. The Fall on the outlet here is 20 feet in one eighth of a mile. The mills upon it consist of one shingle machine, one lath and stave mill, and one grist mill. About thirty years since a good beginning was made in ornamenting the village by setting out a few elms. The surface of the town is variable in elevation but the highest hills do not exceed 200 feet. The underlying rock is granitic in character. The soil is a gravelly loam. Hay and potatoes are the crops chiefly cultivated. Spruce, pine, birch, and maple are still abundant in the forests. The town sent 40 men to the defence of the Union in the late war losing 7. Meddybemps was incorporated February 20, 1841. It was formed from portions of Cooper, Charlotte, and Baring. The Baptists have a church edifice here and the Methodists have a society and sustain meetings. There are two public schoolhouses in the town. The entire school property is valued at $1,000. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $24,080, in 1880 it was $25,833. The rate of taxation in the latter year was 26 mills on the dollar. The population in 1870 was 200, in 1880 it was 172 .

PEMBROKE lies on the north west side of Lubec Bay in the south eastern part of Washington County. Its greatest length is north west and south east above 8 miles and its width is about 3. Perry lies on its north east side, Charleston on the north, Dennysville and Edmunds on the south west. The surface of the town is uneven but without lofty eminences. The land is well suited for agriculture and the town is becoming one of the best in this respect. Pemmaquan River, the principal stream in the town, furnishes not less than five good water powers all of which are occupied. There are two mills for manufacturing long and short lumber, a planing mill, and a sash and blind factory, two grist mills and works of the Pembroke Iron Company. These consist of furnaces, rolling mill, machine shop, etc. The main building of this establishment is 171 feet wide and 160 feet long. The dam is of stone and the power is very uniform. General Ezekiel Foster, an enterprising merchant of Eastport, was the originator of this enterprise having commenced building the work in 1832. They were operated by Foster and Bartlett for a few years then sold to Gray & Co of Boston. In 1849 they were purchased by William E. Coffin & Co of Boston, the present proprietors. For fifteen years prior to 1873, these works did an extensive business in the manufacture of iron spikes rivets and other articles. The iron produced here is said to be surpassed by very few factories. The southern shores of this town are washed by the sea and there are several places where the flow of the tide in and out of basins might be made available for mills. The chief natural curiosity of the town is Cobscook Falls formed by the tide which rushes tumutuously through a narrow passage over rugged rocks into and out of an immense basin or reservoir. The bay formed by the mouth of the Pemmaquan is easy of access and safe. During the century in which the town has been settled though every year a hundred vessels visit the harbor not one was ever lost within its precincts. Shipbuilding began in this town as early as 1825 yet the vessels built were very few until Hon. S. C. Foster in 1844 commenced the industry constructing in a few years quite a fleet. In 1860 the business had so increased that there were in the town seven ship yards. Two only are in operation at present. Many of the vessels built here are for coasting and the fisheries. Pembroke was first settled in 1774. Hatevil Leighton from Gouldsborough, Maine, being the pioneer. Edmund Meagher Mahar and William Clark from Boston came in 1780 settling near Cobscook Falls. These were followed by Robert Ash, M. Denho, Joseph Bridges, Zadock Hersey, Caleb Hersey, Samuel Sprague, Theophilus and Bela Wilder, Moses Gardiner, Stephen Gardiner, and M. Dunbar most of whom came from Maine and Massachusetts. Theophilus Wilder is said have become a resident as early as 1740. These pioneer families were marked by industrious and frugal habits, a love of order, and the stern virtues of our illustrious ancestors. The proprietors of the lands in this town were Thomas Russell, John Lowell, and General Benjamin Lincoln of Revolutionary fame. The Herseys and Theophilus Wilder were soldiers in the war for independence and the latter was a captain in the army under General Gates and present at the surrender of Burgoyne. Pembroke was a part of Dennysville until Feb. 4, 1832, when it was set off and incorporated. Hon. Stephen C. Foster, a native of East Machias but long a resident of Pembroke, represented his district in Congress from 1857 to 1861. Union Church, the first in the town, was erected in 1842. Robert Cresset a Congregationalist was the first settled minister. Now there are also a Baptist and a Catholic society and two Methodists. Pembroke has 13 public schoolhouses valued at $15,000. There is a high school and the village schools are graded. The population in 1870 was 2,551. In 1880 it was 2,324. The valuation in 1870 was $388,233. In 1880 it was $409,443.

PERRY lies on Passamaquoddy Bay in the south east part of Washington County. Robbinston bounds it upon the north and Pembroke on the west. On the south is Lubec Bay and Eastport, and on the east is Passamaquoddy Bay. The town is about 7 miles in extreme length and 5 miles is the greatest width; but following the indentations and projections of the shore, it has about 40 miles of sea coast. Nosahick Pond or Boyden Lake, the principal body of water, is about 5 miles long and 2 miles wide. Little River its outlet is the principal stream affording several good mill sites. On these are saw mills manufacturing laths, staves, and boxes, also a grist mill and a carding mill. The shores of Perry are bold and the adjacent waters deep so that vessels of 100 tons can in most places lie so near as to be laden from the bank by wheeling the cargo from 50 to 80 feet. The tide rises here thirty feet. The surface of the town is free from large hills but the southern part is very rocky and uneven. Pigeon Hill, about 100 feet in height, is the principal eminence. The underlying rock is sandstone and the soil gravelly loam. Hay is the leading crop and there is a pretty good stock of cattle kept. Pine, spruce, and cedar are the chief forest trees. Most of the eastern shore is well settled but at no point is there much of a village. There is a good brick town hall and the public property generally is in good repair. Private buildings also throughout the town are mostly well cared for and some are quite tasteful and attractive. The nearest railroad station is at St. Stephens in New Brunswick 20 miles distant. The town is 36 miles north east of Machias and 20 miles from Calais. The stage line from Eastport to Calais passes through Perry. This was formerly Plantation No. 1. The township was purchased of Massachusetts 1783-4 by Gen. Benjamin Lincoln and others on condition that the proprietors should place here twenty settlers within a given time and give to each 100 acres of land. The township was full of noble woods and for many years the principal occupation of the people was getting out timber, spars, shingles, and other articles and transporting these to St. Andrews and Robbinston and later Eastport, carrying thither these products and bringing back provisions and rum. In 1808 the plantation felt very sensibly the effect of the wars in Europe. Buonaparte had stopped the shipment of timber from the Baltic by the English and in consequence they sought for this necessary material on the shores of Passainquoddy Bay. Fed by the trade this business brought, St. Andrews grew up very ??? and surrounding places obtained some share of the inflowing wealth. This was then the El Dorado of the State. One man alone got out timber in ten days that brought him $1300 and it was no uncommon event for a man to come home with $500 or $1,000 in his pocket the proceeds of the sale of his lumber. Money could be obtained so much more easily by lumbering than by the slow returns of agricultural toil that when the timber was gone general poverty followed their wasteful methods. Farming, coasting, and the fisheries are now the principal occupations At Pleasant Point forming the south eastern extremity of the town is a settlement of the Passamaquoddy Indians. See article on Indians in the first part of this volume. Perry was incorporated Feb. 12, 1880. Peter Goulding and Robinson Palmer are mentioned as its most esteemed citizens. One hundred and thirty one men were sent to the Union army from this town during the war of the Rebellion and of these 43 were lost. The Congregationalists, Baptists, and Methodist have societies here and the two first have church edifices. The number of public schoolhouses is eleven. The school property is valued at $2,200. The population in 1870 was 1,449. In 1830 it was 1,047. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $205,592. In 1880 it was $172,921. The rate of taxation was two per cent in the latter year.

ROBBINSTON post County Robinston lies on St. Croix River in the south eastern part of Washington County. Calais bounds it on the north, Perry on the south, and Charlotte on the west. The area is 17,800 acres. The surface of the town is quite level but rising by a gradual slope from the river. Boyden Lake extends into the south western part, in the northern and central parts are West Magurrewock Lake and the smaller sheets of Rand's Goulding, Western, and Eastern lakes. The outlets of these supply power for several mills. The manufactures of this town are long and short lumber wedges, laraquins, leather and moccasins, carriages, and canned fish of various kinds. For many years Robbinston was the centre of trade for the neighboring towns. Ship building was formerly largely carried on here while the ports of Europe furnished ready market for this product, but since the introduction of steam vessels the business has declined. The attention has now been turned more to food products. Potatoes from the shortness of the season mostly escape the diseases incident to longer seasons and possess rare excellence and accordingly are largely raised and eagerly sought for. The principal villages are Robbinston and South Robbinston. This town lies on Calais and Eastport stage line. It is 35 miles north east of Machias. Opposite on the eastern side of the St. Croix is St Andrews a considerable port and village in the British Dominions. Robbinston was granted by Massachusetts October 21, 1786 to Edward H. and Nathaniel J. Robbins in honor of whom the town was named. Two families were already settled in the township when the grant was made. The proprietors soon made clearings and erected a store house and other buildings and settlers came rapidly. It is said by Williamson that a post office was established here as early as 1796 and that the first mail came through in September in that year. In 1810 the inhabitants petitioned for incorporation as a town and appointed as a committee to present it John Brewer, Thomas Vose, John Balkham, Obadiah Allen, Abel Brooks, Job Jonson, and Thaddeus Sibly which petition was granted and the required act passed February 18, 1811. A meeting house was built here in 1817 and in the following year Rev. Daniel Lovejoy was settled by the Congregationalists. The society still flourishes and there are now also societies of the Baptists and Methodists. The town has six public schoolhouses and the school property is valued at $2,500. The population in 1870 was 926. In 1880 it was 910. The valuation in 1870 was $127,030. In 1880 it was $111,694.

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